Cairo is the capital of the Arab Republic of Egypt and the largest and most important city of all, and is the largest Arab city in terms of population and area,  and ranked second in Africa and 17th in the world in terms of population,   Statistics for 2015 represent 10.6% of the total population of Egypt. The city of Cairo is one of the most culturally and culturally diverse cities. It has witnessed many different historical periods throughout the ages. It has many ancient and modern monuments. It has become an open museum with Pharaonic, Greek, Roman, Coptic and Islamic monuments. The history of the city dates back to the creation of the Pharaonic city of Ayn Shams or Heliopolis, the oldest of the ancient capitals. The city of Cairo in its current form dates back to the Islamic conquest of Egypt by Amr ibn al-Aas in 641 and the establishment of the city of Fustat, then the establishment of the Abbasids of the city of the military, the construction of Ahmad ibn Tulun for the city of Qataea, and with the entry of the Fatimids Egypt, the leader Jowhar al-Saqli began building the new capital of the Fatimid state by order Of the Fatimid Caliph al-Mu'izz Ladinullah in 969, and was called the Caliphate by the name "Cairo". Throughout the ages, Cairo has been known as the City of the Thousand Minarets, Egypt Al Mahrousa and Cairo El Moez. During the Islamic era, Cairo witnessed the finest architecture in the construction of castles, forts, fences, schools and mosques, giving it an aesthetic glimpse of its old neighborhoods. Cairo is a governorate and a city. It is a province that occupies a whole area of one city. At the same time, it is a large city that is a province of its own. It is divided into 37 neighborhoods. Cairo celebrates its national day on July 6 every year. In 969, to the age of Cairo now more than 1044 years.   Cairo is also home to several regional and international organizations, with the headquarters of the League of Arab States and the regional offices of WHO, FAO, ICAO, ITU, UNFPA, UN Women, Headquarters of the United Nations Development Program (UNDP), the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), as well as the headquarters of the African Basketball Federation.